Land-based exploration projects frequently have complex near-surface geology because of varying types of overburden, erosion, and water content. This leads to a complex geophysical model with rapid velocity variations in both the horizontal and vertical directions. There is also the complication of coherent, surface-wave noise recorded in the data.
Traditionally, the surface waves in land seismic data have been regarded as coherent noise to be removed. But in some cases, with a complex near-surface or spatial aliasing, their attenuation can be challenging. As part of near surface characterization we have developed the surface wave analysis, modeling, and inversion techniques, which enable us to extract information from the surface waves before removing them from the seismic data.
Our techniques and workflows combine multiple geophysical and geological measurements to improve characterization, providing improved analysis of the near-surface geology, and, ultimately, a better image of the reservoir.